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The use of animals in scientific research

Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information:
The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issued final modification to the "Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information", the "Privacy Rule", on August 14, 2002. The Privacy Rule is a federal regulation under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 that governs the protection of individually identifiable health information, and is administered and enforced by the HHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR).

Decisions about applicability and implementation of the Privacy Rule reside with the researcher and his/her institution. The OCR website () provides information on the Privacy Rule, including a complete Regulation Text and a set of decision tools on "Am I a covered entity?" Information on the impact of the HIPAA Privacy Rule on NIH processes involving the review, funding, and progress monitoring of grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts can be found at .

Scientist give the animals no choice in whether they or going to be used in an experiment.

Industrialized nations and are greatly responsible for deforesting Earth, although nations such as Japan have been exporting the devastation, as foreign forests are razed and shipped to Japan, while Japan treats its forests as sacred groves. But also, the poor in former colonial nations have been pushed to ecosystem margins. The prime arable land is usually owned by local oligarchs or foreign corporations; they often raise crops for export to the industrialized nations. . The peasants farm marginal lands, often hillsides, which not only devastate the last refuges of species driven into the hills, but it also erodes the hillsides, , which happened in the Old World long ago. Those dynamics, particularly habitat destruction, are largely behind today’s accelerating Sixth Mass Extinction, also called the . This pattern also extends back for , not just since the ice sheets melted in this latest interglacial interval. The reached 70% or more of global species going extinct. According to a recent estimate, for the human-caused extinction. Other estimates have this level being reached as early as my lifetime, while others think it will be reached in a . The current extinction rate is thought to be higher than those of all previous extinction events other than the one that . Humanity may “achieve” . Biologists and climate scientists are stupefied, and the global propaganda machine chugs along, making everything seem normal, while “scientists” in their employ work long and hard to , , and the rest, in a kind of Potemkin Earth strategy, gleaning profits and playing power games until the end.

The scientific benefits of animal testing are obvious....

For many centuries scientists and testers in research have used animals of all kinds.

are created by undisturbed organism remains that become saturated with various chemicals, which gradually replace the organic material with rock by . Few life forms ever become fossils but are instead consumed by other life. Rare dynamics lead to fossil formation, usually by anoxic conditions leading to undisturbed sediments that protect the evidence and fossilize it. Scientists estimate that only about 1%-2% of all species that ever existed have left behind fossils that have been recovered. Geological processes are continually creating new land, both on the continents and under the ocean. Seafloor strata do not provide much insight into life’s ancient past, particularly fossils, because the process in “mere” . The basic process is that, in the Atlantic and Pacific sea floors in particular, oceanic volcanic ridges spew out basalt and the plates flow toward the surrounding continents. When oceanic plates reach continental plates, the heavier (basaltic) oceanic plates are subducted below the lighter (granitic) continental plates. Parts of an oceanic plate were more than 100 mya and left behind plate fragments. On the continents, however, as they have floated on the heavier rocks, tectonic and erosional processes have not obliterated all ancient rocks and fossils. The oldest “indigenous” rocks yet found on Earth are . have been dated to 3.5 bya, and fossils of individual cyanobacteria have been dated to 1.5 bya. There are recent claims of finding . The oldest eukaryote fossils found so far are of . The first amoeba-like vase-shaped fossils date from about 750 mya, and there are recent claims of finding the first animal fossils in Namibia, of sponge-like creatures which are . Fossils from might be the first animal fossils, and some scientists think that animals may have first appeared about one bya. The first animals, or , probably descended from . The is a tail-like appendage that protists primarily used to move and it could also be used to create a current to capture food. Flagella were used to draw food into the first animals, which would have been sponge-like. When the first colonies developed in which unicellular organisms began to specialize and act in concert, animals were born, and it is currently thought that the evolution of animals probably only happened . In interpreting the fossil record, there are four general levels of confidence: inevitable conclusions (such as ichthyosaurs were marine reptiles), likely interpretations (ichthyosaurs appeared to give live birth instead of laying eggs), speculations (were ichthyosaurs warm-blooded?), and guesses (what color was an ichthyosaur?).

The greatest scientists readily admitted that the theories and data of physics, that hardest of the hard sciences, drew highly limited descriptions of reality, and those scientists were usually, to one extent or another, . If textbook science falls far short of explaining reality, what can be said within its framework that is useful? Plenty. Our industrialized world is based on textbook science and feats such as putting men on the Moon were performed within the parameters of textbook science. With the waning of overspecialization and overreliance on reductionism in the last decades of the 20th century, multidisciplinary works have proliferated and will tend to dominate the references for this essay. I have found them not only very helpful for my own understanding, but they are appropriate references for a generalist essay. I have also avoided scientific terminology when feasible. For example, I use “seafloor” instead of “,” and if a non-specialized term will suffice for a scientific concept, I will often use it.

Should animals be used for scientific research

The growing number of animals used in research differs among the different countries.

has been a prominent hypothesis that posited that behaviorally modern humans suddenly appeared. It was once considered an abrupt event that began about 50-40 kya, but as new archeological finds are amassed, as well as recent advances in genetic research and other areas, the story is familiar. Although on the geological timescale the event was abrupt, radical, and unprecedented in life’s history on Earth, the “ramping” period seems to have lasted longer than initially thought. A likelier story is that in East Africa, which conforms to a . inherited culture and tools from their ancestors and continued along the path of inventing more complex technologies and techniques, exploiting new biomes, and reaching new levels of cognition. There does not seem to be any or development that needs to invoke divine or extraterrestrial intervention to explain the appearance and rise of . Some migrated past their African homeland during the of 130 kya to 114 kya and brought along their technology. Although they may have disappeared and perhaps became Neanderthal prey, vestiges of their fate are probably yet to be discovered. They may have contributed to the biological and technological wealth of Eurasian humans and may have begun to drive vulnerable species to extinction with their new tools and techniques. However, Africa remained the crucible of primate biological and technological innovation, as it almost always had to that time. By 70-60 kya, isolated African humans reached a level of sophistication called behavioral modernity. Art was in evidence, needles made clothes and other sophisticated possessions, and they mastered language, which was probably a unique trait among land animals. They made tools of a sophistication far advanced over other humans, which probably included projectile weapons that radically changed the terms of engagement with prey animals, predators, and other humans.

What heads that list may well be the primary trait that led to UP’s dominance of Earth: their mastery of language. Although social communication via sound may have and perhaps even earlier, and had , and Neanderthals had , scientists strongly suspect that the mastery of language that today’s humans display probably allowed humans to rapidly develop their technology and culture. It was humanity’s first Internet: a way to communicate ideas and information in a way previously unfeasible and even unimaginable, at a level of sophistication that no other land animal ever achieved. That invention provided the opportunity for sharing complex ideas, which created positive feedback loops that allowed for quicker cultural and technological advances. That is not fanciful speculation; linguistics, the study of brain abnormalities, and genetics testing has converged on what seems the most plausible hypothesis today, although in these areas the controversies can be fierce.

However, the most common mammals used in animal research are mice and rats.
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Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Research Sociology Essay

Scientists are unanimous that the Western Hemisphere’s indigenous peoples primarily came from East Asia, but there has been a cottage industry for centuries proposing other ideas. When Thomas Jefferson sent the expedition to North America’s west coast in 1804 to , they were alerted to find the lost tribes of Israel. But genetic, anatomical, archeological, and other evidence has long since settled the issue of where American Indians came from, and by far the leading hypothesis is that humans migrated to North and South America beginning about 15 kya, and there may have been a migration along the Pacific coastline, which continued the . As the , a corridor between them formed and humans walked to North America about 11 kya. Those arrivals founded the . The sudden disappearance of virtually all the megafauna of North and South America followed those humans, particularly those that came by land and spread. That situation is where the original “” label was used.

The growing number of animals used in research differs among ..

From about 32 kya to 22 kya, prevailed in Europe. That culture produced the and art such as the . By 20 kya, . But as far as human expansion is concerned, the Gravettian (and related cultures) are most notorious as mammoth hunters extraordinaire for those that lived on the near the ice sheets. To , they could not swim to Sahul, but flourished everywhere else they could get to. At , they were the ultimate hunter-gatherer kill. Also, near the ice sheets, meat could be stored in the ground. Cro-Magnons did just that, and that “freezer” full of meat led to the first seasonally sedentary humans. It long predated the Domestication Revolution when people could be sedentary year-round, but while the megafauna lasted, the first signs of what came later appeared as Cro-Magnons created villages around frozen mammoth meat. Gravettians hunted along migration routes and set traps and ambushes for mammoths. For thousands of years, mammoths were the primary focus of Gravettian hunters, and many scientists believe that humans at least . Gravettians probably used the bow and arrow, and using poisoned arrows on mammoths would have been child’s play, not a hazardous undertaking. They also tended to focus on the easy meat: the young, relatively defenseless, tender mammoths. Killing the offspring alone would have driven the slowly reproducing mammoths to extinction, and as the interglacial period began around 15 kya, there would have been new pressures on mammoths. One of them was that fewer mammoths meant that they were not terraforming their environments like they used to, and the warming climate probably reduced their range. For a mammoth facing humans, there was literally no place to hide (except maybe in the living room), and there is little reason to think that hunters would have eased up when mammoth numbers dwindled. If anything, their efforts would have to get the last ones, as they competed and fought over the final mammoths. In one lifetime or even several, the changes would have been barely noticeable, if at all. There was simply no way out for mammoths, and they went extinct south of the European ice sheets under the ministrations of Cro-Magnon hunters. More evidence of their fate is some mammoths surviving in refugia: islands where humans did not arrive until thousands of years later. mammoths survived on in the chain off of Alaska until less than six kya, and went extinct when humans arrived. Several hundred apparently full-sized mammoths survived on near Siberia and went extinct less than five kya, when humans arrived. In today's France and Spain, Gravettians also semi-settled along the migration routes of reindeer and red deer. From Spain across Europe, into today's Russia, Gravettians hunted migrating herds, and not only the mammoth was driven to extinction, but also the wooly rhino, the Irish elk, the musk ox, and steppe bison were driven to extinction as the ice sheets retreated. Neanderthals had been ambush hunting in similar fashion, and those animals, like the African megafauna, grew wary of humans, and killing those animals probably took planning and guile.

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