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Uses Of Computers In Modern Life Free Essays - …
The emergence of the medical model as psychiatry's dominant ideology has a fascinating history, such as in the 1800's in England when "mad doctor" elites jostled with one another to create the early journals, regulations, associations, licensing, government funding and large institutions. The medical model was simply a kind of rallying flag to consolidate the power of the dominant psychiatrists.
Rome had an underdeveloped economy. It largely relied on military conquest and plunder, not developing its domestic economy. Nevertheless, on an absolute scale, Rome was unprecedented; a lead spike in in the first century CE provides evidence of Rome’s level of industrial activity. The world’s lead mining did not reach Roman levels again until the 1700s. The arenas were only one venue of many where slaves died. The mines in Spain were also charnel houses that consumed lives at an astonishing pace. Many Carthaginians ended up in the mines, and Spain was deforested just like Greece, Italy, Anatolia, and the like. Modern observers, like those , would scarcely believe that those arid nations hosted lush forests not long ago. I and traveled the length of Italy, Greece, and the former Yugoslavia, and sailed through the Greek isles. I vividly recall the tremendous olive groves of Delphi and starker scenes, in which islands were nothing more than barren rock. The mountains could possess an austere beauty like a moonscape, and had I been told that all of those places hosted thick, moist forests a few millennia ago, I might not have believed it, either.
Uses Of Computers In Modern Life Free Essays
But the branch of the that readers might find most interesting led to humans. Humans are in the phylum, and the last common ancestor that founded the Chordata phylum is still a mystery and understandably a source of controversy. Was our ancestor a ? A ? Peter Ward made the case, as have others for a long time, that it was the sea squirt, also called a tunicate, which in its larval stage resembles a fish. The nerve cord in most bilaterally symmetric animals runs below the belly, not above it, and a sea squirt that never grew up may have been our direct ancestor. Adult tunicates are also highly adapted to extracting oxygen from water, even too much so, with only about 10% of today’s available oxygen extracted in tunicate respiration. It may mean that tunicates adapted to low oxygen conditions early on. Ward’s respiration hypothesis, which makes the case that adapting to low oxygen conditions was an evolutionary spur for animals, will repeatedly reappear in this essay, as will . Ward’s hypothesis may be proven wrong or will not have the key influence that he attributes to it, but it also has plenty going for it. The idea that fluctuating oxygen levels impacted animal evolution has been gaining support in recent years, particularly in light of recent reconstructions of oxygen levels in the eon of complex life, called and , which have yielded broadly similar results, but their variances mean that much more work needs to be performed before on the can be done, if it ever can be. Ward’s basic hypotheses is that when oxygen levels are high, ecosystems are diverse and life is an easy proposition; when oxygen levels are low, animals adapted to high oxygen levels go extinct and the survivors are adapted to low oxygen with body plan changes, and their adaptations helped them dominate after the extinctions. The has a pretty wide range of potential error, particularly in the early years, and it also tracked atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The challenges to the validity of a model based on data with such a wide range of error are understandable. But some broad trends are unmistakable, as it is with other models, some of which are generally declining carbon dioxide levels, some huge oxygen spikes, and the generally relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which a geochemist would expect. The high carbon dioxide level during the Cambrian, of at least 4,000 PPM (the "RCO2" in the below graphic is a ratio of the calculated CO2 levels to today's levels), is what scientists think made the times so hot. (Permission: Peter Ward, June 2014)
The twin ideas of efficiency and resilience are important. Efficiency is about getting more for less, particularly energy. Although aerobic respiration’s energy efficiency allowed for to develop, they end up creating interactions and dependencies, and the entire structure can lose its resilience when compared to simpler systems. Remove one part of the food chain and the entire ecosystem can collapse, and it can be part of the chain, from top to bottom. Making systems more efficient, as the last bits of energy are wrung from the system, reduces their resilience to the real world’s surprises. That dynamic is probably a key contributing factor of mass extinctions during the eon of complex life. Modern ecosystems studies are making the connections clear and are being applied to the dynamics of human civilizations; work has been seminal in this regard. Complex ecosystems pass through of exploitation, conservation, release, and reorganization, and three dimensions of interaction are involved: potential, connectedness, and resilience. In general, simple systems are more stable than complex ones, which is another reason why any , if there were any, would have been far less cataclysmic than those of complex life.
Essay on The Vital Role of Computers in Modern …
A feminist anthropologist historian Ann Goldberg has looked into the real life stories of those who were locked up in an early big institution in the 1800's, in Germany, in her provocatively-titled book Essentially, her research seems to show we have been some of the people who have not "fit in" to a modernizing society, a society that has some major problems itself.
I highly recommend the superbly-researched book by historian Andrew Scull et al. to understand how a few hundred elites in England in the 1800's helped construct the medical model domination system we see today. Scull points out that one of the first, most influential books promoting a medical model of mental health in the 1800's barely even mentioned that 'flavor of the day,' phrenology, which the author finally added as an afterthought in his dedication.
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Administrative Role in Modern Athletics Essay
England had nearly a century’s head start on the competition with its Industrial Revolution, which is why it became the world’s triumphant imperial power, to be later supplanted by its offspring and rival, the USA. Turning coal into an industrial fuel, for smelting iron and powering machines, initiated the Industrial Revolution, and the next big innovation was making machines to replace hands. English inventors , and the 1760s and 1770s were the golden age of spinning innovation, and the , , and were all invented. By the 1790s, people using such machines . I call one worker with a machine outperforming 150 people without one an energy-and-technology-leveraged human. Energy-powered technology allowed a person to vastly outperform humans without it. Was that person 150 times more dexterous? Smarter? Faster? Stronger? The machine did the work, not the person, and energy made it all happen, not the equipment. Without energy to run it, machinery is useless, but without human-made technology, the energy was unavailable. Such machines would never have been without the available energy to run them. Those early spinning machines ran on water power from the .
Essay On The Role Of Computers In Everyday Life Essays …
But what led to English success in North America, more than anything else, was the energy-rich continent that they stumbled into. Intact forests and soils were long gone in Europe, and seemingly virgin lands were there for the taking, as long as the natives were removed. Soon after the USA achieved its independence from Great Britain, during a meeting of English and American diplomats, a British diplomat noted that despite their many similarities, among them their common heritage, the Americans at that meeting were all about a foot taller than their British counterparts. Colonial New Englanders lived several years longer than their British counterparts. The rich soils of North America grew larger people than Europe’s depleted soils, and Americans always had one of humanity’s longest life expectancies. That was largely why they could .
Read this essay on The Role of Computers in Life.
The deep-seated connection between mercantilism and imperialism became evident with Spanish efforts. Expeditions were privately financed with royal sanction, and the Crown got a cut of the loot. The Spanish effort was far cruder than what its rivals and successors devised, and it eventually became capitalist in orientation. were formed by the English and Dutch at the beginning of their imperial ascents, with trading companies. The , founded in 1600, and the , founded in 1602, were corporations acting on behalf of their sponsoring states, and were designed to wrest the from Portugal, along with seizing other imperial opportunities. The French regularly bought up the rear, empire-wise, and did not charter their until 1664. In the early 1800s, in the wake of classical economics, corporations became private enterprises and soon were granted , unlimited life, and . Greed was not only enshrined in , but corporations are .
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