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Heart of Darkness = Сердце тьмы: повесть на англ.яз
Further proof of the prevalence of Universalist views at a very early date in the Church may be drawn from the so-called SIBYLLINE books, which were composed (except a certain portion, which is pre-Christian), at various dates, and by various authors, in the second and following centuries. These books furnish us with most valuable evidence as to the beliefs current in those days. It will be seen how sharp is the contrast between them and our modern notions. In one of them a very striking picture is drawn of the end of the world. All things, even Hades, are to be melted down in the divine fire in order to be purified. All, just and unjust, pass through unquenchable fire. The unjust are further committed to hell (Gehenna); they are bound in fetters not to be broken; they pray vainly to God; yet these men- apparently all the lost -are finally to be saved at the request of the righteous.
I will now take the more direct testimony in favor of Universalism, which abounds in the writings of the Fathers. The earliest of all Christian authors, CLEMENS (Romanus) has left us an Epistle about as long as S. MARK'S Gospel. It is significant that though he devotes three chapters to the Resurrection, not a line can be quoted from him in favor of the traditional creed. This, though important, is negative evidence only, but there is a passage in RUFINUS - Inv. in Hier., lib. i., prop. fin. - from which we may, I think, infer, that CLEMENT, with other Fathers, was a believer in the larger hope. We have already noted that the antient Didache ton Apostolon is silent as to any endless punishment. Again, if we turn to the striking epistle to DIOGNETES, which probably dates from about the middle of the second century, we shall find the author describing God as One Who always was, is, and will be, "wrathless," - ch. viii.; he describes the "eternal" (aeonian) fire as chastising not "without an end," but "up to an end." (Mechri telous) - ch. x.
Heart of Darkness Thesis Statements and Important …
Take, for instance, the service of Holy Baptism - what is the profession of faith required? "Do you believe in everlasting life after death," and not a word or hint further. Again, in our Litany, do we not pray God to have mercy, not on some men, but on all men? If this were in fact impossible, would it not be very like a sham to address such a prayer to God - just as the Inquisition used to hand over prisoners to the secular courts with a request that they would be merciful?
If so, I reply, why not then carry out your theory? Infant Communion was universal for centuries; slavery was universally defended from the earliest age of the Church. Are we, therefore, to adopt them? The duty of persecution for errors of faith was universally held - shall we adopt it? Shall we invoke saints and angels because the practice was once universal, or burn witches for the same cogent reason? It has pleased God to permit in numberless cases error to prevail, and obscure in this present age His truth. This very fact is but a louder call to us to work against all that hides or distorts that truth. Nay, it points not uncertainly to a conclusion in perfect agreement with the larger hope, this namely, that the present is but an initial stage of being; one of many ages, during which God is slowly, very slowly, working out a vast plan, and permits for a moment, as it were, an apparent triumph to error and to evil.
Heart of Darkness, by Joseph Conrad. Read it now for …
This is a very small part of the evidence. If the silence of these councils is significant, so are the following facts still more significant. We have the faith of the Church defined in two documents, of an authority in its kind quite unique and fundamental - the two Creeds * * the Apostles', and that we call the Nicene. Rightly to estimate the weight of the testimony they bear, let us remember that in the second Great Ecumenical Council, where the Nicene Creed received its present shape, S. GREGORY of Nazianzus, (whose opinions are discussed p. 117-9) presided: while the chief agent in the task of adding to the Nicene Creed the new clauses then adopted, and ending with the significant words, "I believe in the 'life of the world to come," (in the life, be it remembered, and in nothing more), was, probably, S. GREGORY of Nyssa; whose words -see pp.. 121-5, show him to have been an unhesitating advocate of universal salvation.
There is this to be noted and frankly admitted, that if Africa gave birth to a theology broad and truly catholic in its sympathies, so it furnished what to some may seem the antidote. North Africa was in a special sense the home of a theology cruel and remorseless in its eschatology. Let us hear TERTULLIAN gloating and reveling over the future torments of the heathen. He is to "laugh," "rejoice," "exult." He tells us why "when I behold so many kings groaning in the lowest darkness; so many magistrates liquefying in fiercer flames than they ever kindled against Christians sapient philosophers blushing as they burn with their disciples: then shall we see the tragedians more tuneful under the fire • the charioteer ALL RED in his burning car." - De Spectac. XXX .-
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Heart of Darkness and The Secret Sharer (Bantam Classic) ..
This thought may be pursued further thus: An old proverb says very wisely, "the mills of God grind slowly," and this divine slowness, or long suffering, is very conspicuous in God's ways. How very slowly has He been fitting this earth for man's habitation, and by what a long continued succession of stages, age succeeding age. At length man steps on the earth. Now, is all the divine slowness to be at once changed - and why should it be? Man is to live for ever and ever: we are apt to forget what this means, and how altogether impossible it is to assign any proportion between the fleeting moments of earthly life, and the life that stretches away for ever and ever. If we compare a human life of average duration to one second of time, and compare endless duration to the aggregate of all the seconds that have passed since time was, and that shall pass while time endures, still we assign to human life a proportionate duration infinitely too long.
Heart of darkness essay – Ensayos
"God so loved the world," - dwell on these words. The world, then, must have been in some real sense worthy of love. He cannot love - He may pity - the unlovely. Has He ceased to love it? if so, when? I challenge a reply. "Love is not love that alters, where it alteration finds;" even human love, if true, never changes. Yet this love is but a faint, far-off, reflection of our Father's love. God is not love and justice, or love and anger. He is Love, i.e., love essential. Therefore His wrath and vengeance, while very real, are the ministers of His love. To say that God cannot change, is to say that His love cannot change. Hence His love being changeless, pursues the sinner to the outer darkness, and, being Almighty, draws him thence. An earthly parent, who, being able to help, should sit unmoved, month after month, year after year, watching, but never helping, the agonies of his own offspring, is a picture more hideous than any the records of crime can furnish. What shall we say to those who heighten enormously, infinitely, all that is shocking in such a picture, until its blackest details become light itself; and then tell us that the parent in this ghastly scene is one who is Love, love infinite, almighty, and our Father?
See also, The Secret Sharer Criticism and Joseph Conrad ..
Thus S. JEROME, commenting on Zephan. ii. g, explains the eternal desolation of Amon as ending in their conversion. See, too, his comment to the same effect on Ezek. xxv. 4. Of Jerusalem, he says on Ez. xxiv., that the city was burnt with eternal fire by Hadrian. He says Israel is delivered over to eternal woe. - In Amos viii. a flame is kindled against them which shall not he quenched (in Jer. vii. 20); yet he asserts repeatedly the final salvation of Israel - In Hos. xiii., in Zeph. iii., in Ezek. xxxix., xxi., xxxv., &c. Again, he says that Edom is to be banished to eternal desolation .- In Ezek. xxxv., that Edom and the host of Egypt are to lie (slain) in a perpetual sleep. - In Ezek. xxxii. : And God is wroth with Esau (Edom) for ever, a fact S. JEROME repeats three times over; yet Edom is to be finally converted. - In Obad. i.: And Egypt is represented as restored and converted. - In Ezek. xxix. To S. JEROME the "outer darkness" permits an escape; and after "the uttermost farthing" is paid, salvation comes. - In Micah vii.-8. Nay, JONAH'S three days' imprisonment in the whale is "eternal" night! - In Jon. ii. And the very fire of hell" (Gehenna) cleanses (and is, therefore, temporary).- In Nahum iii. In S. JEROME'S works I have noted many cases in which eternus (&c.) means in fact temporary.
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